Lesson 9:12:12.

Source; medscape.

Pregnancy diagnosis. The arrow is pointing to the yolk sac as seen within the gestational sac (GS). The yolk sac is usually identified before the GS is larger than 10 mm. Likewise, if the yolk sac is larger than 7 mm without signs of a developing fetal pole, the chance of an abnormal pregnancy is increased.

Pregnancy diagnosis. This is a gestational sac (GS) that measures approximately 2 X 3 cm, without evidence of a yolk sac. When the GS is larger than 10 mm and no yolk sac is identified, an abnormal pregnancy is likely. This particular situation is referred to as a blighted ovum or an anembryonic pregnancy.

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Menstruation is the shedding of the functional layer (upper two-thirds) of the endometrium after sex steroid withdrawal.

The role of the functional layer is to prepare the uterus for implantation.

The basal endometrial layer (lower one-third) provides tissue for regeneration during the following cycle.

This shedding process, which consists of three phases (menstrual, proliferative, and secretory), is repeated approximately 300–400 times during a woman's reproductive life.

It also occurs in primates and bats.

Menstruation indicates that conception has not occurred.

OHOAG: source.
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Rhesus Negative

People who are rhesus positive or RhD positive have a protein known as D antigen on the surface of their red blood cells. People who do not have the D antigen are known as RhD negative. Most people are RhD positive but this varies slightly depending on your ethnic origins:
-85 per cent of people of white European origin are RhD positive
-94 per cent of people of African origin are RhD positive

-90 per cent of people of Asian origin are RhD positive

Rhesus status only matters if an RhD-negative mum is carrying an RhD-positive baby (the child inherits this from an RhD-positive dad). If some of your baby's blood gets into your own bloodstream, your immune system may react to the D antigen in the baby's blood as if it were a foreign invader and produce antibodies against it. This is known as sensitising.

Sensitising is not usually harmful in a first pregnancy, but when you become pregnant again, and if your new baby is RhD positive, the antibodies in your system can cross the placenta and attack the blood cells of your baby, causing anaemia, jaundice or in severe cases, heart or liver failure. This condition is called haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

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Breastfeeding / Fact #10.

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The next step: phasing in new foods

To meet the growing needs of babies at six months of age, complementary foods should be introduced as they continue to breastfeed. Foods for the baby can be specially prepared or modified from family meals. WHO notes that:
  • breastfeeding should not be decreased when starting complementary feeding;
  • complementary foods should be given with a spoon or cup, not in a bottle;
  • foods should be clean, safe and locally available; and
  • ample time is needed for young children to learn to eat solid foods.


Breastfeeding / Fact #9.

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Work and breastfeeding

WHO recommends that a new mother should have at least 16 weeks of absence from work after delivery, to be able to rest and breastfeed her child. Many mothers who go back to work abandon exclusive breastfeeding before the recommended six months because they do not have sufficient time, or an adequate place to breastfeed or express and store their milk at work. Mothers need access to a safe, clean and private place in or near their workplaces to continue the practice.


Breastfeeding / Fact #8.

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Support for mothers is essential

Breastfeeding has to be learned and many women encounter difficulties at the beginning. Nipple pain, and fear that there is not enough milk to sustain the baby are common. Health facilities that support breastfeeding - by making trained breastfeeding counsellors available to new mothers - encourage higher rates of the practice. To provide this support and improve care for mothers and newborns, there are now more than 20 000 "baby-friendly" facilities in 152 countries thanks to a WHO-UNICEF initiative.


Breastfeeding / Fact #7.

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Thanks For reading.
God Bless..

Regulating breast-milk substitutes

An international code to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes was adopted in 1981. It calls for:
  • all formula labels and information to state the benefits of breastfeeding and the health risks of substitutes;
  • no promotion of breast-milk substitutes;
  • no free samples of substitutes to be given to pregnant women, mothers or their families; and
  • no distribution of free or subsidized substitutes to health workers or facilities.