Lesson 9:12:12.

Source; medscape.

Pregnancy diagnosis. The arrow is pointing to the yolk sac as seen within the gestational sac (GS). The yolk sac is usually identified before the GS is larger than 10 mm. Likewise, if the yolk sac is larger than 7 mm without signs of a developing fetal pole, the chance of an abnormal pregnancy is increased.

Pregnancy diagnosis. This is a gestational sac (GS) that measures approximately 2 X 3 cm, without evidence of a yolk sac. When the GS is larger than 10 mm and no yolk sac is identified, an abnormal pregnancy is likely. This particular situation is referred to as a blighted ovum or an anembryonic pregnancy.

- Posted using BlogPress from my iPhone



Menstruation is the shedding of the functional layer (upper two-thirds) of the endometrium after sex steroid withdrawal.

The role of the functional layer is to prepare the uterus for implantation.

The basal endometrial layer (lower one-third) provides tissue for regeneration during the following cycle.

This shedding process, which consists of three phases (menstrual, proliferative, and secretory), is repeated approximately 300–400 times during a woman's reproductive life.

It also occurs in primates and bats.

Menstruation indicates that conception has not occurred.

OHOAG: source.
- Posted using BlogPress from my iPhone


Rhesus Negative

People who are rhesus positive or RhD positive have a protein known as D antigen on the surface of their red blood cells. People who do not have the D antigen are known as RhD negative. Most people are RhD positive but this varies slightly depending on your ethnic origins:
-85 per cent of people of white European origin are RhD positive
-94 per cent of people of African origin are RhD positive

-90 per cent of people of Asian origin are RhD positive

Rhesus status only matters if an RhD-negative mum is carrying an RhD-positive baby (the child inherits this from an RhD-positive dad). If some of your baby's blood gets into your own bloodstream, your immune system may react to the D antigen in the baby's blood as if it were a foreign invader and produce antibodies against it. This is known as sensitising.

Sensitising is not usually harmful in a first pregnancy, but when you become pregnant again, and if your new baby is RhD positive, the antibodies in your system can cross the placenta and attack the blood cells of your baby, causing anaemia, jaundice or in severe cases, heart or liver failure. This condition is called haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

- Posted using BlogPress from my iPhone


Breastfeeding / Fact #10.

Dear All,
Thanks For Reading.
God bless.

The next step: phasing in new foods

To meet the growing needs of babies at six months of age, complementary foods should be introduced as they continue to breastfeed. Foods for the baby can be specially prepared or modified from family meals. WHO notes that:
  • breastfeeding should not be decreased when starting complementary feeding;
  • complementary foods should be given with a spoon or cup, not in a bottle;
  • foods should be clean, safe and locally available; and
  • ample time is needed for young children to learn to eat solid foods.